Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

Modulation of GCN2/eIF2α/ATF4 pathway in the liver and induction of FGF21 in young goats fed a protein- and/or phosphorus-reduced diet

Mammals respond to amino acid (AA) deficiency by initiating an AA response pathway (AAR) that involves the activation of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2), phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), and activation of transcription factor 4 (ATF4). In this study, the effects of protein (N) and/or phosphorus (P) restriction on the GCN2/eIF2α/ATF4 pathway in the liver and the induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in young goats were investigated. An N-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in circulating essential AA (EAA) and an increase in non-essential AA (NEAA), as well as an increase in hepatic mRNA expression of GCN2 and ATF4 and protein expression of GCN2. Dietary N restriction robustly increased both hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression and circulating FGF21 levels. Accordingly, numerous significant correlations demonstrated the effects of the AA profile on the AAR pathway and confirmed an association. Furthermore, activation of the AAR pathway depended on the sufficient availability of P. When dietary P was restricted, the GCN2/eIF2α/ATF4 pathway was not initiated, and no increase in FGF21 was observed. These results illustrate how the AAR pathway responds to N- and/or P-reduced diets in ruminants, thus demonstrating the complexity of dietary component changes.


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