Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

Active equine parvovirus-hepatitis infection is most frequently detected in Austrian horses of advanced age

Background

Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) research is in its infancy. Information regarding prevalence, geographical distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis and risk factors enhances understanding of this potentially fatal infection.

Objectives

Determining the prevalence of EqPV-H in Austrian equids. Investigating factors increasing probability of infection, liver-associated biochemistry parameters, concurrent equine hepacivirus (EqHV) infection and phylogenetic analysis of Austrian EqPV-H variants.

Study design

Cross-sectional study.

Methods

Sera from 259 horses and 13 donkeys in Austria were analysed for anti-EqPV-H VP1-specific antibodies by luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and EqPV-H DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associations between infection status, sex and age were described. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bile acids and albumin concentrations were compared between horses with active infection and PCR-negative horses. PCR targeting partial EqPV-H NS1 was performed and phylogenetic analysis of Austrian EqPV-H variants was conducted. Complete coding sequences (CDS) of four Austrian variants were determined by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared with published sequences.

Results

Horses' EqPV-H seroprevalence was 30.1% and DNA prevalence was 8.9%. One horse was co-infected with EqHV. Significantly, higher probability of active EqPV-H infection was identified in 16- to 31-year-old horses, compared with 1- to 8-year-old horses (P = 0.002; OR = 8.19; 95% CI = 1.79 to 37.50) and 9- to 15-year-old horses (P = 0.03; OR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.08 to 8.17). Liver-associated plasma parameters were not significantly different between horses with active infection and controls. Austrian EqPV-H variants revealed high similarity to sequences worldwide. No evidence of EqPV-H was detected in donkeys.

Main limitations

Equids’ inclusion depended upon owner consent. There was only one sampling point per animal and the sample of donkeys was small.

Conclusions

EqPV-H antibodies and DNA are frequently detected in Austrian horses, without associated hepatitis in horses with active infection. The risk of active EqPV-H infection increases with increasing age. Phylogenetic evidence supports close relation of EqPV-H variants globally, including Austrian variants.

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