Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

Activation of the xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress response by mixtures of organic pollutants extracted with in-tissue passive sampling from liver, kidney, brain and blubber of marine mammals

We used in-tissue passive equilibrium sampling using the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to transfer chemical mixtures present in organs from marine mammals with lipid contents between 2.3 and 99%into in vitro bioassays. Tissues from five harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and one orca (Orcinus orca) from the North and Baltic Seas were sampled until thermodynamic equilibrium was reached. Mixture effects were quantified with cellular reporter gene bioassays targeting the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR-CALUX), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ-bla) and the oxidative stress response (AREc32), with parallel cytotoxicity measurements in all assays. After removing co-extracted lipids and other matrix residues with a non-destructive cleanup method (freeze-out of acetonitrile extract followed by a primary secondary amine sorbent extraction), the activation of the PPARγ and AREc32 were reduced by factors of on average 4.3 ± 0.15 (n = 22) and 2.5 ± 0.23 (n = 18), respectively, whereas the activation of the AhR remained largely unaltered: 1.1 ± 0.075 (n = 6). The liver extracts showed the highest activation, followed by the corresponding kidney and brain extracts, and the blubber extracts of the animals were the least active ones. The activation of the PPARγ by the liver extracts was reduced after cleanup by a factor of 11 ± 0.26 (n = 7) and the AREc32 activity by a factor of 1.9 ± 0.32 (n = 4). The blubber extracts did not activate the AhR up to concentrations where cytotoxicity occurred or up to an acceptable lipid volume fraction of 0.27% as derived from earlier work, whereas all liver extracts that had undergone cleanup activated the AhR. The developed in-tissue passive sampling approach allows a direct comparison of the bioassay responses between different tissues without further normalization and serves as a quantitative method suitable for biomonitoring of environmental biota samples.


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