Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

Novel subscalp and intracranial devices to wirelessly record and analyze continuous EEG in unsedated, behaving dogs in their natural environments : a new paradigm in canine epilepsy research

Epilepsy is characterized by unprovoked, recurrent seizures and is a common neurologic disorder in dogs and humans. Roughly 1/3 of canines and humans with epilepsy prove to be drug-resistant and continue to have sporadic seizures despite taking daily anti-seizure medications. The optimization of pharmacologic therapy is often limited by inaccurate seizure diaries and medication side effects. Electroencephalography (EEG) has long been a cornerstone of diagnosis and classification in human epilepsy, but because of several technical challenges has played a smaller clinical role in canine epilepsy. The interictal (between seizures) and ictal (seizure) EEG recorded from the epileptic mammalian brain shows characteristic electrophysiologic biomarkers that are very useful for clinical management. A fundamental engineering gap for both humans and canines with epilepsy has been the challenge of obtaining continuous long-term EEG in the patients' natural environment. We are now on the cusp of a revolution where continuous long-term EEG from behaving canines and humans will be available to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and optimal treatment of their patients. Here we review some of the devices that have recently emerged for obtaining long-term EEG in ambulatory subjects living in their natural environments.

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