Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

From structure to function - Ligand recognition by myeloid C-type lectin receptors

The relevance of protein-glycan interactions in immunity has long been underestimated. Yet, the immune system possesses numerous classes of glycan-binding proteins, so-called lectins. Of specific interest is the group of myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) as they are mainly expressed by myeloid cells and play an important role in the initiation of an immune response. Myeloid CLRs represent a major group amongst pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), placing them at the center of the rapidly growing field of glycoimmunology. CLRs have evolved to encompass a wide range of structures and functions and to recognize a large number of glycans and many other ligands from different classes of biopolymers. This review aims at providing the reader with an overview of myeloid CLRs and selected ligands, while highlighting recent insights into CLR-ligand interactions. Subsequently, methodological approaches in CLR-ligand research will be presented. Finally, this review will discuss how CLR-ligand interactions culminate in immunological functions, how glycan mimicry favors immune escape by pathogens, and in which way immune responses can be affected by CLR-ligand interactions in the long term.

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