Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

The influence of viral infection on cell line characteristics : lessons learned from working with new cell lines from common carp

Several factors influence the susceptibility of cell lines to infection by different viruses. These can be related to tissue specificity of the viruses, physiological status of the cells, their differentiation level and their capacity to mount immune responses to combat viral infection. To study the influence of cell characteristics and immune responses on their susceptibility on virus infection, newly developed cell lines from common carp brain (CCAbre), fins (CCApin), gills (CCAgill), and heart (CCAcar) and the established common carp brain (CCB) cells were exposed to the carp infecting viruses cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), carp oedema virus (CEV), and the yet not fully characterized common carp paramyxovirus (CCPV). The susceptibility of these cells to viral infection was measured by formation of a cytopathic effect (CPE), estimation of viral particles produced by the cells and presence of viral mRNA in the cells. Viral susceptibility of the cells was compared to cell characteristics, measured by mRNA expression of the epithelial cell markers cadherin 1, occludin, and cytokeratin 15 and the mesenchymal cell marker vimentin, as well as to the level of type I interferon (IFN) responses. All cell lines were susceptible to CyHV-3 and CCPV but not to CEV infection. The cell lines had different levels of type I IFN responses towards the viruses. Typically, CyHV-3 did not induce high type I IFN responses, while CCPV induced high responses in CCAbre, CCAcar, CCApin cells but no response in CCAgill cells. Consequently, the type I IFN response modulated cell susceptibility to CCPV but not to CyHV-3. Interestingly, when the three different passage levels of CCB cells were examined, the susceptibility of one passage was significantly lower for CyHV-3 and higher for CCPV infection. This coincided with a loss of epithelial markers and lower type I IFN responses. This study confirms an influence of cell characteristics and immune responses on the susceptibility of carp cell lines for virus infection. Depending on the vulnerability of the virus to type I IFN responses, cells with a lower IFN-response can be superior for replication of some viruses. Batches of CCB cells can differentiate and thus may have significantly different levels of susceptibility to certain viruses.

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