Holoprosencephalia, hypoplasia of corpus callosum and cerebral heterotopia in a male belted Galloway heifer with adipsia
Specialized neurons in the diencephalon detect blood hypernatremia in dehydrated animals. These neurons are connected with the pituitary gland, subsequently producing antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from urine in the kidneys, and to the forebrain to generate thirst and trigger drinking behavior.
This is the first case report describing clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and necropsy results of a Belted Galloway heifer with severe clinical signs of dehydration and hypernatremia, but concurrent adipsia and isosthenuria. Due to insufficient recovery with symptomatic treatment, owners elected euthanasia. Postmortem MRI and necropsy revealed a complex forebrain malformation: mild abnormal gyrification of the forebrain cortex, lobar holoprosencephaly, and corpus callosum hypoplasia. The affected brain structures are well known to be involved in osmoregulation and generation of thirst in dogs, humans and rodents.
Complex forebrain malformation can be involved in the pathogenesis of hypernatremia and adipsia in bovines.