Infrared spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen-bonding interactions in cryopreservation solutions
In this study we investigated hydrogen bonding interactions in hydrated and frozen solutions of different cryoprotective agents (CPAs) including dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and trehalose. We also investigated the effect of CPAs on ice crystal growth during storage and correlated this with storage stability of liposomes.
FTIR spectroscopy was used to study hydrogen bonding interactions in CPA solutions in H2O and D2O, and their thermal response was analyzed using van 't Hoff analysis. The effect of CPAs on ice crystal growth during storage was investigated by microscopy and correlated with storage stability of liposomes encapsulated with a fluorescent dye.
Principal component analyses demonstrated that different CPAs can be recognized based on the shape of the OD band region only. Chemically similar molecules such as glycerol and ethylene glycol closely group together in a principal component score plot, whereas trehalose and DMSO appear as condensed separated clusters. The OH/OD band of CPA solutions exhibits an overall shift to higher wavenumbers with increasing temperature and changed fractions of weak and strong hydrogen interactions. CPAs diminish ice crystal formation in frozen samples during storage and minimize liposome leakage during freezing but cannot prevent leakage during frozen storage.
CPAs can be distinguished from one another based on the hydrogen bonding network that is formed in solution. DMSO-water mixtures behave anomalous compared to other CPAs that have OH groups. CPAs modulate ice crystal formation during frozen storage but cannot prevent liposome leakage during frozen storage.