Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

Reference ranges for standard-echocardiography in pugs and impact of clinical severity of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS) on echocardiographic parameters


Echocardiographic measurements may be influenced by breed-specific characteristics. Therefore, this study aims to establish reference values for standard echocardiographic measurements in pugs by investigating the influence of age, sex, heart rate, body weight and Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). Sixty-two privately owned pugs underwent physical examination, blood sample collection, non-invasive blood pressure measurements and echocardiography. Influences of independent variables on echocardiographic measurements were examined using a multiple linear regression analysis model. For the entire study population, 95% prediction intervals were generated. Further, reference ranges for subcategories of clinical severities of BOAS were provided. Selected echocardiographic measurements of pugs were compared to reference values of previous studies generated from various breeds.


In the study, a total of fifty-one privately owned pugs aged between two and 10 years were included for establishing reference ranges. Mainly body weight, but also age, sex and heart rate had influence on several echocardiographic parameters. The clinical grading of BOAS was conducted in 42 pugs. Except for pulmonic peak velocity (Pvel), which declined with increasing severity of BOAS, clinical symptoms of upper airway disease did not have significant impact on echocardiographic measurement results. Significant deviations, however, of left ventricular (LV) internal dimension (LVID), interventricular septum (IVS), LV posterior wall (LVPW), and tricuspid annular plane systolic motion excursion (TAPSE) compared to interbreed reference values were observed.


Breed-specific reference ranges for echocardiographic values with special regard to BOAS are provided to enable a more accurate assessment of cardiac health in pugs.


Citation style:
Could not load citation form.

Access Statistic

Last 12 Month:


Use and reproduction: