Low flow versus no flow : ischaemia reperfusion Injury following different experimental models in the equine small intestine
In experimental studies investigating strangulating intestinal lesions in horses, different ischaemia models have been used with diverging results. Therefore, the aim was to comparatively describe ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in a low flow (LF) and no flow (NF) model. Under general anaesthesia, 120 min of jejunal ischaemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion was induced in 14 warmbloods. During ischaemia, blood flow was reduced by 80% (LF, n = 7) or by 100% (NF, n = 7). Intestinal blood flow and oxygen saturation were measured by Laser Doppler fluxmetry and spectrophotometry. Clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and Ussing chamber analyses were performed on intestinal samples collected hourly. Tissue oxygen saturation was significantly lower in NF ischaemia. The LF group exhibited high variability in oxygen saturation and mucosal damage. Histologically, more haemorrhage was found in the LF group at all time points. Cleaved-caspase-3 and calprotectin-stained cells increased during reperfusion in both groups. After NF ischaemia, the tissue conductance was significantly higher during reperfusion. These results aid in the selection of suitable experimental models for future studies. Although the LF model has been suggested to be more representative for clinical strangulating small intestinal disease, the NF model produced more consistent IRI.