Fermentation characteristics of rye and sorghum depending on water: Feed ratio
This study was conducted to determine the fermentation characteristics of rye or sorghum mixed with different ratios of water (25%, 37.5%, 50%, 62.5%, and 75% in dry matter (DM)), incubated up to 48 h. The pH of the fermented rye at a DM content of 25% after 24 h had the lowest values (3.57) compared to that at a DM content of 75% (6.42). In fermented sorghum, pH values were lower than 4 already after incubation at 25% DM for 12 h (3.93) in comparison to that at DM content 75% (6.51). The L-lactic acid concentration in the fermented rye with 25% DM content after 24 h was significantly the highest (18.7 g/kg DM), as was that of sorghum with 25% DM content after 24 h (22.2 g/kg DM). Moreover, the acetic acid level in the fermented rye with 25% DM content after 24 h was significantly the highest (3.02 g/kg DM) compared to the other DM contents of fermented rye. Also, in fermented sorghum (25% DM), the acetic acid content was significantly the greatest (1.49 g/kg DM) in comparison to the other DM contents of fermented sorghum. Overall, fermented rye and sorghum containing 25 or 37.5% DM for 24 h and 12 h for rye and sorghum, respectively are sufficient for fermentation to be optimized based on the values of pH and lactic acid content, except for acetic acid content, which may negatively affect the palatability in animals.