Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)TiHo eLib

Novel chemotherapeutic agent FX-9 activates NF-κB signaling and induces G1 phase arrest by activating CDKN1A in a human prostate cancer cell line


The aminoisoquinoline FX-9 shows pro-apoptotic and antimitotic effects against lymphoblastic leukemia cells and prostate adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, decreased cytotoxic effects against non-neoplastic blood cells, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts were observed. However, the actual FX-9 molecular mode of action is currently not fully understood.


In this study, microarray gene expression analysis comparing FX-9 exposed and unexposed prostate cancer cells (PC-3 representing castration-resistant prostate cancer), followed by pathway analysis and gene annotation to functional processes were performed. Immunocytochemistry staining was performed with selected targets.


Expression analysis revealed 0.83% of 21,448 differential expressed genes (DEGs) after 6-h exposure of FX-9 and 0.68% DEGs after 12-h exposure thereof. Functional annotation showed that FX-9 primarily caused an activation of inflammatory response by non-canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. The 6-h samples showed activation of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A which might be involved in the secondary response in 12-h samples. This secondary response predominantly consisted of cell cycle-related changes, with further activation of CDKN1A and inhibition of the transcription factor E2F1, including downstream target genes, resulting in G1-phase arrest. Matching our previous observations on cellular level senescence signaling pathways were also found enriched. To verify these results immunocytochemical staining of p21 Waf1/Cip1 (CDKN1A), E2F1 (E2F1), PAI-1 (SERPNE1), and NFkB2/NFkB p 100 (NFKB2) was performed. Increased expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and NFkB2/NFkB p 100 after 24-h exposure to FX-9 was shown. E2F1 and PAI-1 showed no increased expression.


FX-9 induced G1-phase arrest of PC-3 cells through activation of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A, which was initiated by an inflammatory response of noncanonical NF-κB signaling.


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