A Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (Olimond BB) alters the early response after influenza vaccination in racehorses
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) fermentation products (SCFP) are used in animal husbandry as pre- and postbiotic feed supplements. A variety of immunomodulatory effects are noted in many species. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that horses fed with SCFP containing feed additive Olimond BB display a modulated early immune response after influenza vaccination. Six horses received Olimond BB pellets (OLI) and five horses were fed placebo pellets (PLA) for 56 days. On day 40 all horses were vaccinated with a recombinant influenza A/equi-2 vaccine. At the day of vaccination, the groups did not differ in the composition of leukocyte subpopulations and reticulocytes. Twenty-four hours after vaccination total leukocyte counts and numbers of CD4+ T-cells significantly increased in both groups. In PLA horses, the numbers of neutrophil granulocytes significantly increased and numbers of CD8+ T-cells decreased, whereas the numbers of these cell types remained unchanged in OLI horses. Only OLI horses displayed a significant increase in reticulocyte percentages after vaccination. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, CD21+ B-cells, and serum amyloid A levels remained unaffected in both groups after vaccination. Sixteen days after vaccination, PLA and OLI horses differed significantly in their enhanced ELISA IgG titres against Newmarket and Florida Clade 1 influenza strains. The observed differences after vaccination suggest that feed supplementation with Olimond BB leads to modulated early immune responses after influenza vaccination, which may also affect the memory responses after booster vaccination.