Proximity labeling approaches to study protein complexes during virus infection.
Cellular compartmentalization of proteins and protein complex formation allow cells to tightly control biological processes. Therefore, understanding the subcellular localization and interactions of a specific protein is crucial to uncover its biological function. The advent of proximity labeling (PL) has reshaped cellular proteomics in infection biology. PL utilizes a genetically modified enzyme that generates a "labeling cloud" by covalently labeling proteins in close proximity to the enzyme. Fusion of a PL enzyme to a specific antibody or a "bait" protein of interest in combination with affinity enrichment mass spectrometry (AE-MS) enables the isolation and identification of the cellular proximity proteome, or proxisome. This powerful methodology has been paramount for the mapping of membrane or membraneless organelles as well as for the understanding of hard-to-purify protein complexes, such as those of transmembrane proteins. Unsurprisingly, more and more infection biology research groups have recognized the potential of PL for the identification of host-pathogen interactions. In this chapter, we introduce the enzymes commonly used for PL labeling as well as recent promising advancements and summarize the major achievements in organelle mapping and nucleic acid PL. Moreover, we comprehensively describe the research on host-pathogen interactions using PL, giving special attention to studies in the field of virology.