Phenotypical peculiarities and species-specific differences of canine and murine satellite glial cells of spinal ganglia
Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are located in the spinal ganglia (SG) of the peripheral nervous system and tightly envelop each neuron. They preserve tissue homeostasis, protect neurons and react in response to injury. This study comparatively characterizes the phenotype of murine (mSGCs) and canine SGCs (cSGCs). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence as well as 2D and 3D imaging techniques were performed to describe a SGC-specific marker panel, identify potential functional subsets and other phenotypical, species-specific peculiarities. Glutamine synthetase (GS) and the potassium channel Kir 4.1 are SGC-specific markers in murine and canine SG. Furthermore, a subset of mSGCs showed CD45 immunoreactivity and the majority of mSGCs were immunopositive for neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), indicating an immune and a progenitor cell character. The majority of cSGCs were immunopositive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and Sox2. Therefore, cSGCs resemble central nervous system glial cells and progenitor cells. SGCs lacked expression of macrophage markers CD107b, Iba1 and CD204. Double labelling with GS/Kir 4.1 highlights the unique anatomy of SGC-neuron units and emphasizes the indispensability of further staining and imaging techniques for closer insights into the specific distribution of markers and potential colocalizations.