Association of clinical characteristics and lifestyle factors with fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in healthy dogs
Fecal S100/calgranulin (S100A12 and calprotectin) concentrations are useful markers of gastrointestinal inflammation in dogs. In people, fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations are affected by age, obesity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Knowledge about the effects of such factors on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in dogs is currently scarce.
To evaluate the association between several factors and fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in a large cohort of healthy adult dogs.
Single-spot fecal samples from 181 healthy pet dogs and data derived from a standard questionnaire served to evaluate the effect of age, sex, reproductive status, body weight and body condition, breed type and size, vaccination, endoparasite treatment, diet, environment and travel history on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations and the fecal calgranulin ratio (fCalR).
Univariate analysis showed a significant association of reproductive status (in female dogs) and breed size with fecal S100A12, fecal calprotectin and fCalR. Breed type was linked to fecal S100A12 concentrations and fCalR; recent vaccination (particularly with a vaccine against canine parvovirus) to fCalR. In multivariate models, breed size was linked to fecal S100A12 and calprotectin concentrations, and recent vaccination affected S100A12 concentrations.
Breed size, recent vaccination and reproductive status in female dogs can affect fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations, and these biomarkers should be interpreted in light of those confounding factors. The utility of reference intervals for fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations might be improved through stratification by sex/reproductive status and breed size. Fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations are not confounded by age, body condition, deworming, diet, environment or travel history.