Genetic variability in Polish Lowland Sheepdogs assessed by pedigree and genomic data
Genetic variability of Polish Lowland Sheepdog (PON) population was evaluated using both pedigree and genomic data. The analyzed pedigree encompassed 8628 PONs, including 153 individuals genotyped on the Illumina CanineHD BeadChip. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) were defined for homozygous stretches extending over 60 to 4300 kb. The inbreeding coefficients <i>F<sub>Ped</sub></i> based on pedigree data and <i>F<sub>ROH50</sub></i> based on ROHs were at 0.18 and 0.31. The correlation between both was 0.41 but 0.52 when excluding animals with less than seven complete generations. The realized effective population size (Ne¯) was 22.2 with an increasing trend over years. Five PONs explained 79% of the genetic diversity of the reference population. The effective population size derived from linkage disequilibrium measured by r<sup>²</sup> was 36. PANTHER analysis of genes in ROHs shared by ≥50% of the PONs revealed four highly over- or underrepresented biological processes. One among those is the 7.35 fold enriched "forelimb morphogenesis". Candidate loci for hip dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus were discovered in frequently shared ROHs. In conclusion, the inbreeding measures of the PONs were high and the genetic variability small compared to various dog breeds. Regarding Ne¯, PON population was minimally endangered according to the European Association for Animal Production.