Striatal and cortical metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor expression and behavioral effects of the positive allosteric modulator CDPPB in a model of DYT1 dystonia
The metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor is critically involved in corticostriatal plasticity which is disturbed in various animal models of dystonia. Recently, the positive allosteric modulator 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) exerted prodyskinetic effects in a phenotypic model of episodic dystonia. In the DYT1 knock-in (KI) mouse, a model for a persistent type of dystonia, previous ex vivo electrophysiological experiments indicated that mGlu5 receptors are involved in abnormal striatal plasticity. Therefore, in the present study we examined the mGlu5 receptor expression in the striatum and cortex of DYT1 KI mice in comparison with wildtype littermates. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) we found a lower expression of mGlu5 receptors in the cortex (16%) and ventral striatum (10%) but not in the whole striatum of DYT1 KI mice, while mRNA levels were merely lower in the striatum of DYT1 KI mice (43%). However, mGlu5 receptor protein levels measured by western blotting showed no significant differences in tissue of the whole striatum and in the cortex between both genotypes. Since DYT1 KI mice do not exhibit dystonic symptoms, we investigated if CDPPB provokes dystonia or dyskinesia. CDPPB (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal, i.p.) did not induce abnormal movements and the locomotor activity did not differ between DYT1 KI and wildtype mice. The present data do not provide evidence for a crucial role of the mGlu5 receptor in the pathophysiology of DYT1 dystonia, but corticostriatal changes are in line with the hypothesis of maladaptive plasticity in dystonia.