Yeasts in liquid swine diets : Identification methods, growth temperatures and gas-formation potential
Liquid feed is susceptible to microbiological growth. Yeasts are said to cause sudden death in swine due to intestinal gas formation. As not all animals given high yeast content feed fall ill, growth and gas formation potential at body temperature were investigated as possible causally required properties. The best identification method for these environmental yeasts should be tested beforehand. Yeasts derived from liquid diets without (LD - S) and liquid diets with maize silage (LD + S) were examined biochemically (ID32C-test) and with MALDI-TOF with direct smear (DS) and an extraction method (EX). Growth temperature and gas-forming potential were measured. With MALDI-EX, most yeast isolates were identified: <i>Candida krusei</i> most often in LD - S, and <i>C. lambica</i> most often in LD + S, significantly more than in LD - S. Larger colonies, 58.75% of all yeast isolates, were formed at 25 °C rather than at 37 °C; 17.5% of all isolates did not grow at 37 °C at all. Most <i>C. krusei</i> isolates formed high gas amounts within 24 h, whereas none of the <i>C. lambica</i>, <i>C. holmii</i> and most other isolates did. The gas pressure formed by yeast isolates varied more than tenfold. Only a minority of the yeasts were able to produce gas at temperatures common in the pig gut.