Koi herpesvirus and carp edema virus threaten common carp aquaculture in Croatia
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a very important fish species for warm-water aquaculture in Croatia. All Croatian carp farms are subjected to a surveillance programme for the presence of koi herpesvirus (KHV), causing a deadly disease called koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). However, there is no surveillance for other viral pathogens of importance like carp edema virus (CEV), a causative agent of koi sleepy disease (KSD). During regular testing within the KHVD surveillance programme, we tested samples for CEV simultaneously. The screening indicated possible outbreaks of KHVD and KSD. During 2016, KHVD broke out in an isolated area and soon thereafter a KHV eradication programme was successfully performed. However, during 2018 and 2019, two additional mortality events occurred in lakes in the southern part of Croatia during the spring. Samples from both events tested positive for CEV. An epidemiological investigation confirmed the introduction of infected carps from an infected farm to one of the lakes. To prevent the spreading of CEV into open waters, it is of utmost importance to introduce CEV testing before fish movement or to perform regular testing of all carp farms in the country to determine CEV prevalence for the purpose of implementation of control measures.