Leukocyte populations in peripheral blood of dromedary camels with clinical endometritis
Endometritis represents the main cause of reproductive failure in dromedary camels. In dromedary camels, associations between endometritis-causing pathogen-species, disease severity, and systemic changes in the immune system have not been evaluated. In the current study, there was use of flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of membrane proteins for the evaluation of leukocyte subsets and the cellular phenotype in blood of camels with clinical endometritis and evaluations of associations with disease severity and endometritis-causing pathogens. Animals with endometritis had markedly larger numbers of total leukocytes and neutrophils. Although total lymphocyte and monocyte counts did not differ between camels with and without clinical endometritis, there were lesser numbers of total and effector CD4-positive T cells in camels with endometritis. Among monocytes, number of camel inflammatory monocytes (Mo-II) was markedly greater, whereas Mo-III numbers were less in the blood of camels with clinical endometritis. Number of inflammatory monocytes was also indicative of endometritis severity grade. Among camels with clinical endometritis, E. coli- and S. aureus-infected animals had similar endometritis grades and comparable phenotype and composition patterns of leukocytes. Neutrophils and monocytes of camels with clinical endometritis had fewer cell adhesion molecules (i.e., CD11a and CD18). Collectively, the results from the current study allowed for identification of associations between endometritis severity grade and larger numbers of inflammatory monocytes. The results also indicate there is no association between endometritis pathogen-species and changes in phenotype or composition of blood leukocytes.