Gain and loss of subcutaneous and abdominal fat depot mass from late pregnancy to 100 days in milk in German Holsteins
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that in times of negative energy balance around parturition in dairy cattle, lipids stored in adipocytes are mobilised in a more intensive manner out of the abdominal depots than out of the subcutaneous adipose tissues. Furthermore, the impact of niacin supplementation and energy density of the ration on adipose tissue mass gain and loss was assessed. Absolute masses of subcutaneous (SCAT), retroperitoneal (RPAT), omental (OMAT), mesenterial (MAT) and abdominal adipose tissue as a whole (AAT) were estimated by ultrasonography at -42, 3, 21 and 100 DIM. Absolute and relative daily gain during dry period (-42 to 3 DIM) and loss in fresh cow period (3 to 21 DIM) and early lactation period (22 to 100 DIM) were calculated. Feeding regime neither by niacin nor by energy density exerted any effect on adipose tissue masses. The AAT was always bigger than SCAT, but RPAT, OMAT and MAT did not differ amongst each other. All depot masses showed similar patterns with an increase during dry period and a decrease after calving. In fresh cow period AAT absolutely and relatively lost more mass than SCAT. This confirms that AAT is more intensively mobilised than SCAT during that time span. Further absolute daily gain during dry period was strongly negatively correlated with absolute daily loss during fresh cow period. This underlines the impact of individual body condition on adipose mobilisation in periparturient dairy cows. According to these results, it has to be taken into account that the largest amount of fat mobilised in the fresh cow period origins from AAT. This might impact the pattern of adipose derived metabolites and metabolic effectors interacting in physiological and deregulated adaptation to negative energy balance.