Radiographic determination of humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar subluxation indices to quantify elbow incongruence in dogs confirmed to have medial coronoid disease
Medial coronoid disease and elbow incongruence are common orthopedic problems causing forelimb lameness in large breed dogs. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective clinical study is to radiographically quantify the incongruity of humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar joints in dogs with confirmed medial coronoid disease compared to controls. Sixty-six (93 elbows) control and 73 (113 elbows) diseased Labrador and Golden Retrievers were enrolled. Our objective was achieved by measuring the central humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar distances and calculating the corresponding subluxation index of each joint on the extended mediolateral elbow radiograph. The traditional radioulnar step was also measured on the same mediolateral projection. Variables were compared between control and diseased groups, and the significance level was P < .05. The central humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar distances and corresponding subluxation indices increased significantly (P ≤ .007) in elbows with confirmed medial coronoid disease compared to controls. Radioulnar step increased significantly (P < .0001) in diseased elbows. Elbow incongruence, manifested by increased humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar subluxation indices, appeared to be consistent with medial coronoid disease in Labrador and Golden Retrievers. An elbow with a humeroradial, humeroulnar, or radioulnar subluxation index >0.15, 0.10, or 0.14, respectively, or radioulnar step >1.4 mm, is more likely to be incongruent and may have a concomitant coronoid disease. However, future validation of the reported measurements is still warranted.