Broadly protective influenza vaccines: design and production platforms
Effective vaccines are the cornerstone of our defenses against acute influenza virus infections that result in ∼500 000 annual deaths worldwide. For decades, an on-going concerted effort has been to develop a universal influenza vaccine to combat the looming threat of potentially pandemic emerging and re-emerging influenza viruses. To address the need for rapid efficacious vaccines that could mitigate the impact of seasonal and future pandemics, multiple platforms are under development and/or investigation. What is clear is that any universal vaccine must provide long-lasting cross-protective immunity that can induce both B and T cell responses. This review will explore some of the universal influenza vaccine platforms in the contexts of their ability to induce long-lasting and cross-protective T cell immunity.