Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)

Extracellular traps : an ancient weapon of multiple kingdoms

Neumann, Ariane; Brogden, Graham GND; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

The discovery, in 2004, of extracellular traps released by neutrophils has extended our understanding of the mode of action of various innate immune cells. This fascinating discovery demonstrated the extracellular trapping and killing of various pathogens by neutrophils. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated showing that extracellular traps play a crucial role in the defence mechanisms of various cell types present in vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. The aim of this review is to summarise the relevant literature on the evolutionary history of extracellular traps used as a weapon in various kingdoms of life.


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Neumann, A., Brogden, G., von Köckritz-Blickwede, M., 2020. Extracellular traps: an ancient weapon of multiple kingdoms. Biology 9.
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