A pilot study on in vitro solubility of phosphorus from mineral sources, feed ingredients and compound feed for pigs, poultry, dogs and cats
Excess phosphorus (P) as seen in cat foods can have a negative effect on health (Dobenecker, Webel, Reese, & Kienzle, ; Pastoor, Klooster, Mathot, & Beynen, ). P surpluses may affect the environment, and economics in food producing animals, whereas marginal supply may impair performance and health. P can only be absorbed if it is soluble. Solubility of feed P in water and weak acid solution-as a precondition for absorption-was investigated in feed for dogs, cats, pigs and poultry. Different P containing mineral compounds (Ca(H2 PO4 )2 , CaHPO4 •2H2 O, Ca4 Na(PO4 )3 , KH2 PO4 , K4 P2 O7 , NaH2 PO4 , Na5 P3 O10 (29 samples), as well as eight different ingredients such as wheat or meat, 64 compound feeds for pig and poultry, eight complete dry and 13 complete moist dog foods, 25 complete moist cat foods and 29 experimental diets were analysed for P solubility. Finely ground feeds were soaked in water or hydrochloric acid (0.4%) for 1 and 90 min. The samples were centrifuged and the supernatant was analysed for P (photometric vanadate molybdate method after wet ashing). The solubility of P from inorganic sources reflected the solubility of the main compound of the feed grade material. "organic" ingredients, such as fish meal or meat, showed a lower P solubility than inorganic sources. Most ingredients from animal origin (exception fish meal) had a higher P solubility than those from plant origin. When inorganic and "organic" P sources were mixed, the P solubility of the mixture reflected the P solubility and percentages of its compounds. In chicken, turkey and pig compound feed the percentage of acid soluble P increased with increasing P content. Pet moist food showed high percentages of water-soluble P. The results show that the method is suitable to obtain data on water and acid solubility of P in feed and ingredients.