Verlaufsuntersuchungen bei Deutschen Jagdterriern mit belastungsabhängiger metabolischer Myopathie
OBJECTIVE:Exercise induced metabolic myopathy in German Hunting Terrier dogs is an autosomal-recessively inherited disorder, caused by a nonsense variant of the gene encoding for the very long-chain acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (VLCAD) enzyme. Clinical signs include exercise- induced fatigue, muscle pain and weakness. In the present study, the long-term course of this disease was investigated over a period of 1 year in 9 affected German Hunting Terriers. The dogs were treated symptomatically with oral L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10 and a special diet characterized by a low content of long-chain fatty acids and a high proportion of carbohydrates. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In 9 affected dogs, the phenotype as well as clinical, laboratory parameters, and histopathological findings are described (time point 1) and compared to follow-up examinations 1 year later (time point 2). At both time points clinical and neurological examinations, complete blood cell count, clinical chemistry profile and the concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were investigated. RESULTS:In the follow-up examinations, the same post-exercise clinical signs were present as in the initial presentation of the homozygous dogs. Dark-brownish discoloration of the urine, weakness, myalgia as well as stiff and tetraparetic gait were apparant. All hematological values and the concentration of NT-proBNP were within the relevant reference ranges. Plasma CK and ALT activities were compared between the first presentation and the follow- up examination and no significant differences were detected (pCK = 0.31, pALT = 0.64). Signs of myopathy remained unchanged throughout the examination period. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Oral supplementation with L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10 and the special dietary management did not result in any improvement of clinical signs or laboratory parameters. No progression of the disease was observed. The prognosis for affected dogs remains cautious as long-term observations of affected dogs over several years are lacking. Our findings provide further important information on inherited disorders of mitochondrial β-oxidation in dogs, especially focused on the exercise induced metabolic myopathy in the German Hunting Terrier. This may provide new insights for novel treatment modalities in conjuntion with the development of improved breeding guidelines.
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