Evaluation of IL-1β levels in epilepsy and traumatic brain injury in dogs
BACKGROUND:Epilepsy is a common neurological disease in dogs affecting approximately 0.6-0.75% of the canine population. There is much evidence of neuroinflammation presence in epilepsy, creating new possibilities for the treatment of the disease. An increased expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) was reported in epileptogenic foci. We hypothesized that there is an elevation of IL-1β in serum and CSF of dogs with epilepsy, as well as in serum of dogs with TBI, reflecting involvement of this cytokine in pathophysiology of naturally occurring canine epilepsy in a clinical setting. RESULTS:IL-1β levels were evaluated in CSF and serum of six healthy and 51 dogs with epilepsy (structural and idiopathic). In 16 dogs with TBI, only serum was tested. IL-1β concentrations in CSF were not detectable. Serum values were not elevated in dogs with TBI in comparison to healthy controls (p > 0.05). However, dogs with epilepsy had increased levels of IL-1β in serum (p = 0.003) regardless of the underlying cause of the disease (p = 0.0045). There was no significant relationship between the variables and IL-1β levels. Statistically noticeable (p = 0.0630) was that approximately 10% of dog with epilepsy (R2 = 0.105) had increased seizure frequency and IL-1β elevation. CONCLUSION:Increased IL-1β levels were detected in the peripheral blood in dogs with idiopathic and structural epilepsy leading to the assumption that there is an involvement of inflammation in pathophysiology of epilepsy which should be considered in the search for new therapeutic strategies for this disease. However, to better understand the pathogenic role of this cytokine in epilepsy, further evaluation of IL-1β in brain tissue is desired.