Dromedary camel CD14high MHCIIhigh monocytes display inflammatory properties and are reduced in newborn camel calves
BACKGROUND:In human and different animal species, blood monocytes are classified based on their expression pattern of different monocytic markers into phenotypically and functionally different subsets. In the current study, we used flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies to CD172a, CD14, CD163 and MHCII to identify monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of dromedary camels. RESULTS:Based on CD14, CD163 and MHCII expression, camel CD172a + monocytes were divided into three subsets: The major subpopulation of camel monocytes (mo-I) showed high expression of CD14 and CD163, but low expression of MHCII. A second subset of monocytes (mo-II) expressed highly all three markers, CD14, CD163 and MHCII. A third monocyte subset (mo-III) displayed low expression of CD14 and CD163 with high MHCII expression. While the two MHCIIhigh subsets (mo-II and mo-III) showed higher expression of CD11a in comparison to the MHCIIlow subset (mo-I), CD18 and CD11b were highest expressed on the two CD14high subsets (mo-I and mo-II). Bacterial stimulation of camel leukocytes identified mo-II cells as an antimicrobial monocyte subset with the highest phagocytic and ROS production capacity. The comparison of monocyte counts and phenotype between newborn calves and adult camels revealed significantly reduced numbers of mo-II cells in newborn animals. Monocytes of newborns expressed significantly more CD172a and CD163 molecules but less CD14 and MHCII molecules than monocytes of adult camels. CONCLUSIONS:Camel monocyte subsets, mo-I, mo-II and mo-III are counterparts of bovine classical, intermediate and non-classical monocytes respectively. The distribution of camel monocyte subsets is influenced by age.