Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)

Analysis of fluoroquinolones in dusts from intensive livestock farming and the co-occurrence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli

ORCID
0000-0002-9747-6763
Affiliation
Institute for Animal Hygiene, Animal Welfare and Farm Animal Behaviour, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, Germany. Jochen.schulz@tiho-hannover.de.
Schulz, Jochen;
ORCID
0000-0003-0092-4302
Affiliation
Institute for Animal Hygiene, Animal Welfare and Farm Animal Behaviour, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, Germany.
Kemper, Nicole;
ORCID
0000-0002-3966-407X
Affiliation
Institute for Animal Hygiene, Animal Welfare and Farm Animal Behaviour, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, Germany.
Hartung, Joerg;
Affiliation
Institute of Food Chemistry and Food Biotechnology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
Janusch, Franziska;
Affiliation
Institute of Food Chemistry and Food Biotechnology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
Mohring, Siegrun A I;
Affiliation
Institute of Food Chemistry and Food Biotechnology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
Hamscher, Gerd

Fluoroquinolones are important therapeutics in human and veterinary medicine. This study aimed to retrospectively analyse sedimentation dusts from intensive-livestock-farming barns for fluoroquinolones and investigate the association between resistant Escherichia coli and the detected drugs. Sedimentation-dust samples (n = 125) collected (1980-2009) at 14 barns of unknown-treatment status were analysed by HPLC and tandem-mass spectroscopy to detect enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and difloxacin. Recent microbiological data were included to investigate the relationship between fluoroquinolone presence and fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. Fifty-nine dust samples (47%) from seven barns contained fluoroquinolone residues. Up to three different fluoroquinolones were detected in pig and broiler barns. Fluoroquinolone concentrations ranged from 10-pg/mg to 46-ng/mg dust. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli were isolated from four barns. Of all the dust samples, 22% contained non-susceptible isolates. Non-susceptible isolate presence in the dust was significantly associated (p = 0.0283) with detecting the drugs, while drug detection increased the odds (4-fold) of finding non-susceptible E. coli (odds ratio = 3.9877, 95% CI: 1.2854-12.3712). This retrospective study shows that fluoroquinolone usage leads to dust contamination. We conclude that farmers and animals inhale/swallow fluoroquinolones and fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria due to drug application. Furthermore, uncontrolled drug emissions via air exhausted from the barns can be assumed.

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