Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from swine husbandries in North Western Germany : temporal patterns in samples from laboratory practice from 2006 to 2017
BACKGROUND:Since 2011, antibiotic usage has decreased continuously in livestock in Germany. Whether this is accompanied by a reduction in bacterial antimicrobial resistance has not been proven so far. In this study 3054 Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from pigs which had suffered from disease on 2161 farms in North Western Germany were evaluated retrospectively from 2006 to 2017 for trends in their antimicrobial resistance pattern. Data were substantially related to the "pre-reduction period" and were therefore suggested as a basis for this task. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for selected antimicrobial substances were evaluated for E. coli strains isolated from different organs of diseased swine sampled for routine diagnostic. In total, 81% of E. coli were isolated from faeces or the gastrointestinal tract, 11% from the genito-urinary tract and 8% from other organs. Susceptibility testing and classification of isolates in accordance with clinical cut-offs followed the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). If no clinical cut-offs were available for the respective combination of species, substance and organ, other published clinical cut-offs were used. RESULTS:Differences in susceptibility patterns between isolates from the gastrointestinal and genito-urinary tract were found for most substances. Isolates from the genito-urinary tract were less frequently resistant to ampicillin, apramycin, colistin, neomycin, spectinomycin and tetracycline and more frequently resistant to enrofloxacin and florfenicol. A multifactorial logistic regression model revealed time-dependent decreases in frequency of resistant isolates for neomycin, spectinomycin and tetracycline. For colistin, the highest percentage of resistant isolates with 16.0% was found in 2015 followed by a decrease to the level of 2009-2010 in 2017. A decrease in frequencies of ampicillin-resistant isolates was dependent on the age-group and time period. Irrespective of the year, less than 15% E. coli isolates were resistant to apramycin, cephalosporins, colistin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin and neomycin. CONCLUSION:An overall time-dependent decrease in the percentage of resistant E. coli isolates was found for some substances. These data from diseased animals indicate an impact of a general reduction in antibiotic usage on development of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in the field and can support the decision-making of swine practitioners for treatment options in swine.
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