Analysis of porcine pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine induction by S. suis in vivo and in vitro
Weaning piglets are susceptible to the invasive Streptococcus (S.) suis infection, which can result in septicemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytokine profile induced upon S. suis infection of blood, to determine the cellular sources of those cytokines, and to study the potential effects of the induced cytokines on bacterial killing. We measured TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-10 after an experimental intravenous infection with S. suis serotype 2 in vivo, and analyzed whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and separated leukocytes to identify the cytokine-producing cell type(s). In addition, we used a reconstituted whole blood assay to investigate the effect of TNF-α on bacterial killing in the presence of different S. suis-specific IgG levels. An increase in IL-6 and IL-10, but not in IFN-γ or IL-17A, was observed in two of three piglets with pronounced bacteremia 16 to 20 h after infection, but not in piglets with controlled bacteremia. Our results confirmed previous findings that S. suis induces TNF-α and IL-6 and could demonstrate that TNF-α is produced by monocytes in vitro. We further found that IL-10 induction resulted in reduced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. Rapid induction of TNF-α was, however, not crucial for in vitro bacterial killing, not even in the absence of specific IgG.
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