Equine odontogenic tumors: Clinical presentation, CT findings, and outcome in 11 horses
Odontogenic tumors present as locally invasive, slow growing, firm swellings on the face. They are rare in all species and are characterized histologically by the degree of differentiation and dental tissue of origin. Radiographic appearance is not pathognomonic for these lesions. Computed tomographic (CT) examination allows exact determination of tumor extension and aggressiveness. The objectives of this retrospective, case series study were to describe the clinical presentation, CT characteristics, and outcome in horses with histologically confirmed odontogenic tumors, and to identify imaging features suggestive of individual types of tumors. Four ameloblastomas, two ameloblastic carcinomas, three ameloblastic fibromas, and two complex odontomas were included. All but one complex odontoma presented as a single mass. All tumors were associated with maxillary or mandibular bone expansion, alveolar and cortical bone lysis, and cortical bone thinning. The majority also had cortical bone thickening and periosteal proliferation. All tumors contained some degree of mineral attenuation, although only the complex odontomas contained enamel attenuation allowing differentiation from other types of odontogenic tumors in this study. Ameloblastomas were found to have variable CT characteristics likely due to the sub-groups of ameloblastomas. Both ameloblastic carcinomas contained a mixture of mineralized and soft tissue attenuating material whereas ameloblastic fibromas were mainly composed of soft tissue attenuating material. Computed tomographic characteristics of odontogenic tumors generally indicate that they are expansile, aggressive tumors and can occur in a wide range of ages. Further investigation is needed to elucidate differences between each type of equine odontogenic tumor.