Development and validation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay : a rapid and sensitive detection tool for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in small ruminants
AIMS:The aim of this study was to design an assay for the identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) to be used in faeces and milk samples of small ruminants with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system, as a time-saving and user-friendly method in contrast to real-time PCR. METHODS AND RESULTS:For the detection of MAP in milk and faeces of small ruminants, we developed a set of primers, specific for the target gene ISMap02. The analytical sensitivity of LAMP, when targeting ISMap02, showed a DNA detection limit of 10 fg μl-1 . After performing spiking experiments with two MAP reference strains, DSM 44133 and ATCC 19698T , the limit of detection, using the LAMP protocol described herein were 3·8 MAP CFU per ml milk and 12·5 MAP CFU per gram faeces. All LAMP results during the establishment of the assay were compared to those of the real-time PCR results. An internal amplification control was incorporated into the assay to exclude false-negative results produced and had no significant negative impact on the analytical sensitivity. Validation of the assay was confirmed by testing field samples of faeces and revising the results with real-time PCR. CONCLUSION:Our study conducted the first MAP detection system with a LAMP targeting ISMap02. Due to the positive results we encourage the use of LAMP in combination with ISMap02, when detecting MAP in faeces samples, as an alternative to targeting other genes as f57 or IS900. Further research on MAP detection in different matrices like raw milk, tissue or sperm with this system is recommended. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:This study provides new achievements in MAP diagnostic. Especially small ruminants do not show signs of diarrhoea until the terminal stage of the illness. The greatest task in fighting MAP is to rule out animals, which shed MAP with faeces and milk before showing symptoms of Johne's disease. Worldwide there is a need to eradicate animals, which are low MAP shedders to stop the illness spreading in animal holdings. MAP detection with LAMP is time saving, easy to use, does not need expensive equipment, as, for example, PCR kits and can be used without access to laboratories. The target gene ISMap02 was shown to be a specific insertion element for MAP and is a reliable aim in future MAP detection studies.
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