Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover (TiHo)

Facets of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced diseases : an update

ORCID
0000-0002-7973-7405
Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany. Ingo.Gerhauser@tiho-hannover.de.
Gerhauser, Ingo;
GND
1023438828
ORCID
0000-0001-6064-7728
Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany. Florian.Hansmann@tiho-hannover.de.
Hansmann, Florian;
GND
1191268780
ORCID
0000-0001-6277-7366
Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany. Malgorzata.Ciurkiewicz@tiho-hannover.de.
Ciurkiewicz, Malgorzata;
GND
131416308
ORCID
0000-0002-9648-8973
Affiliation
Center for System Neuroscience, 30559 Hannover, Germany. Wolfgang.Loescher@tiho-hannover.de.
Löscher, Wolfgang;
GND
12869792X
ORCID
0000-0003-2187-3436
Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany. andreas.beineke@tiho-hannover.de.
Beineke, Andreas

Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a naturally occurring, enteric pathogen of mice is a Cardiovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Low neurovirulent TMEV strains such as BeAn cause a severe demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice following intracerebral infection. Furthermore, TMEV infections of C57BL/6 mice cause acute polioencephalitis initiating a process of epileptogenesis that results in spontaneous recurrent epileptic seizures in approximately 50% of affected mice. Moreover, C3H mice develop cardiac lesions after an intraperitoneal high-dose application of TMEV. Consequently, TMEV-induced diseases are widely used as animal models for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and myocarditis. The present review summarizes morphological lesions and pathogenic mechanisms triggered by TMEV with a special focus on the development of hippocampal degeneration and seizures in C57BL/6 mice as well as demyelination in the spinal cord in SJL mice. Furthermore, a detailed description of innate and adaptive immune responses is given. TMEV studies provide novel insights into the complexity of organ- and mouse strain-specific immunopathology and help to identify factors critical for virus persistence.

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