Stem Cell Therapy for Tendon Regeneration: Current Status and Future Directions
In adults the healing tendon generates fibrovascular scar tissue and recovers never histologically, mechanically, and functionally which leads to chronic and to degenerative diseases. In this review, the processes and mechanisms of tendon development and fetal regeneration in comparison to adult defect repair and degeneration are discussed in relation to regenerative therapeutic options. We focused on the application of stem cells, growth factors, transcription factors, and gene therapy in tendon injury therapies in order to intervene the scarring process and to induce functional regeneration of the lesioned tissue. Outlines for future therapeutic approaches for tendon injuries will be provided.